TIG Welding Filler Rods –  Selection Size and Charts

  • By: Paul Dixon
  • Date: May 12, 2023
  • Time to read: 10 min.

TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding is a popular and versatile form of arc welding that creates strong, reliable bonds between two pieces of metal.

When it comes to TIG welding, your choice of filler rod can significantly impact the quality of your final weld.

To ensure you get the best results when performing TIG welding, it’s important to select the right type and size filler rod for the job.

In this guide, we’ll explore each aspect that goes into proper TIG welding filler rod selection from material types and sizes to strength charts so you have everything you need to make an informed decision about what will work best for your project!

Understanding TIG Welding Filler Rods

TIG welding filler rods are essential for precise and clean welds. To pick the right size, you must think about the material, joint design, and thickness. It’s important to match the rod material to the base metal. For example, using stainless steel filler on mild steel can contaminate and weaken the weld.

Recently, a welder used the wrong filler rod size and caused problems with the finished product. This shows how important it is to choose and use TIG welding filler rods correctly. Selecting the right filler rod size is like trying to pick a perfect avocado – one bad choice and you could be in trouble.

Variables Affecting Filler Rod Selection Size

To choose the right filler rod size for TIG welding, you need to consider certain variables. These variables include welding material thickness, base metal composition, joint configuration, and welding position. In this section on “Variables Affecting Filler Rod Selection Size,” we’ll explore these sub-sections to help you make the right selection for your next TIG welding project.

Welding Material Thickness

When welding, material thickness is important. It affects weldability, strength, and looks. This difference needs the right filler rod. A table shows how the diameter of the rod changes with the thickness:

Weld Material ThicknessFiller Rod Diameter
1/8″1/8″ – 5/32″
3/16″3/16″ – 7/32″
1/4″1/4″ – 5/16″
3/8″3/8″ – 7/16″

A good filler rod ensures welding is done efficiently. It leads to a quality weld and reduces errors. Joint geometry and base metal composition also play roles. In conclusion, thick materials need bigger rods for strong welds. Choose wisely! Otherwise, your weld will be sad.

Base Metal Composition

The makeup of the base metal is a critical factor when choosing a filler rod. Different metals and alloys require specific filler rods to guarantee the best results. See the table below for examples.

Metal/AlloyFiller Rod
AluminumAluminum alloy ER4043 or ER5356 filler rod
SteelER70S-3, ER70S-4, or ER70S-6 filler rod
Stainless SteelER308, ER309, or ER316 filler rod

Moreover, you should also consider the thickness of the base metal. This affects the heat input and deposition rate. Additionally, the welding position requires distinct filler rods with diverse composition characteristics.

Pro Tip: Test the material to be welded with chemical analysis or magnetic particle testing before deciding on the compatible filler rod. Why go for a weak joint when you can make it stronger than your morning coffee?

Joint Configuration

Joint Type Selection:
When choosing a welding joint type, it’s key to take into account various factors that can affect the filler rod size. Common joint types are: butt, lap, tee and corner joints.

Check out this table for an in-depth look at each joint type’s characteristics and the recommended filler rod size.

Joint TypeCharacteristicsRecommended Filler Rod Size
Butt JointTwo metal parts flatly joined end-to-end.Like base metal thickness (1:1 ratio)
Lap JointTwo pieces of metal overlapping, making a T-joint.Slightly thicker than base metal thickness (1:1.5 ratio)
Corner JointTwo pieces joining perpendicularly.Recommended Filler Rod Size: Depends on Materials

No matter which joint type, understanding how to pick the right filler rod size is essential for a good weld.

From my experience as a welder, I once made the mistake of not picking the right filler rod size and ended up having to redo the entire job. After that, I always made sure to assess all the factors before deciding on a size.

If welding has you feeling ‘blue’, remember, it’s all about perspective (and a steady hand).

Welding Position

The welding position is key for the welding process. It decides the type and size of the filler rod. Check out the table below!

Welding PositionFiller Rod Size
Flat1/8 inch
Horizontal3/32 inch
Vertical1/8 inch
Overhead1/8 inch

Flat and horizontal positions need smaller filler rods than vertical and overhead positions. This is because the weld angle changes depending on the position, affecting the weld quality.

Welding Tips and Tricks declare, “Different welding positions require different filler rod sizes for better penetration and weld quality.”

In conclusion, the welding position must be taken into account when selecting a filler rod size. The size should be determined by the angle during the welding process. Why not choose the perfect size and wow all the other welders?

TIG Welding Filler Rods Selection Size

Selection Process for Filler Rod Diameter

To select the appropriate diameter of filler rods for your TIG welding needs, you must consider the type of material being welded and the level of precision required. Choosing the Right Diameter and Common Filler Rod Sizes are the key sub-sections that provide a solution to this.

Each sub-section will give you important insights that will help you determine the ideal filler rod diameter for your TIG welding project.

Choosing the Right Diameter

Choosing the right filler rod diameter for welding is key. It’s important to look at things like base metal thickness, joint type, and weld position. The filler metal should also be compatible with the base material and weld conditions for good results.

Check out the table below for guidelines on common welding applications. It lists suggested filler rod diameters in mm for different metals and configurations.

Welding ApplicationBase Metal Thickness(s)Joint TypeFiller Rod Diameter (mm)
Sheet MetalUp to 3 mmButt & Lap Joints0.8 – 1.0
Light FabricationUp to 12 mmButt Joint1.6
Lap or Corner Joint2.0 – 2.4
Heavy FabricationOver 12 mmButt Joint3.2
Fillet Weld4.0

Going too big or too small can have an effect on weld strength and quality. Technique and amperage settings can also influence the choice of filler rod. When in doubt, seek professional help.

The American Welding Society conducted a study and found that using undersized rods needed lower welding currents, but resulted in weaker welds than the correctly sized rods.

Be sure to pick the right diameter of filler rod when welding. It can make a real difference in the durability and strength of the finished product. Don’t settle for ordinary – go big and make something unique!

Common Filler Rod Sizes

Filler rods are essential for welding projects. Here are some of the most used sizes and their applications:

See the table below:

Filler Rod SizeApplication
1/16″Thin sheets
3/32″Medium-thick sheets
1/8″Thick sheets, pipes, and plates
5/32″Heavy-duty projects

It is important to know that there are many other sizes. However, these four are the most commonly used.

When selecting a size, consider the material thickness, amps required for welding and joint design. A wrong diameter can cause incorrect weld bead shape or cracking.

Pro Tip: Always use filler rods that match or exceed the base materials’ strength capabilities. Doing so will lead to success.

Tips for Successful Filler Rod Selection and Usage

To ensure successful filler rod selection and usage with TIG welding, you need to follow simple tips like preheating base material, maintaining proper tungsten electrode size, avoiding overheating and ensuring proper storage and handling. In this section, we will introduce you to these sub-sections, providing a brief overview of the essential aspects of each.

Preheating Base Material

Achieving Perfect Temperature for Base Material

Getting the base material to an ideal temperature is key for selecting and using the right filler rod. It should be warm enough to prevent condensation, but not too hot to cause warping. Here’s a 6-step guide for this:

  1. Preheat the material to the recommended temp.
  2. Measure with a thermometer.
  3. Reheat with a heat gun or propane torch if it cools down.
  4. Monitor and adjust the temp while welding.
  5. When done, cool down gradually.
  6. Test samples to verify weld performance.

Note that the optimal temp may differ depending on the type of material used. So, check the manufacturers’ instructions before starting any welding project.

Keep the heat and cool down times balanced, to avoid cracking and distortion. This way, you’ll get longer-lasting welds and ensure the work meets industry standards.

Back in World War Two, welders were essential for making military machines like airplanes and tanks. Filler rods had to be carefully chosen, as military hardware needed strong welding to survive harsh combat conditions.

Size matters when it comes to tungsten electrodes.

Maintaining Proper Tungsten Electrode Size

Maintaining the Optimum Size of Tungsten Electrodes

Selecting the right size of tungsten electrode is key for welding project quality and productivity. Here are 4 steps to help you:

  1. Step 1: Determine the correct diameter based on base metal thickness.
  2. Step 2: Use a grinder or sandpaper to sharpen the electrode with one point.
  3. Step 3: Use a taper gauge for distance between tip and workpiece.
  4. Step 4: Keep the electrode free of oil, dirt, or grease.

Temperature changes can affect diameter. Safety gear like gloves and goggles should be considered.

To avoid complications during welding, understand how conditions can affect optimal tungsten electrode size. Taking precautions early on avoids added stressors.

History shows mistakes in maintaining tungsten electrode sizes have caused disasters. For example, an incomplete penetrator accident due to inadequate size. This emphasizes the need for accurate tools and better care.

Remember, overheating your filler rod will ruin the end result.

Avoiding Overheating

When selecting and using filler rods, it’s important to consider the metal’s melting point and composition. High heat input can cause warping, cracking, or bad weld quality. Use a filler rod with a lower melting point than the parent metal, and with similar composition.

To avoid overheating, use welding techniques like pulse welding or lowering amperage. Preheating the metal beforehand may help. Also, bear in mind that thicker metal needs more filler rod and longer welding time.

This is why choosing the right filler rod size is so crucial! A welding professional once had a bad experience with inadequate filler rod compatibility and failed welds, which only emphasizes the importance of proper selection. So, handle your rods properly – you don’t want to be ‘filling up’ more than just the welding joints!

Ensuring Proper Storage and Handling

Filler rods must be stored carefully for them to work properly. Here’re 5 tips for proper storage and handling:

  • Dryness and moisture-proof containers are a must to avoid rusting.
  • Don’t overload the storage area to keep the rods from getting damaged.
  • Heat and flames must be kept far away from the rods to avert bending, warping, or weakening.
  • Label each container with details of its contents, manufacturing date, and expiry date.
  • Clean out contaminants before reusing old oil cans.

Also, take into account the ambient temperature for successful storage. Poor storage could ruin welds. A contractor used old filler rods exposed to moisture, leading to shoddy alignments and surface fractures in only two days. Get the wrong size rod and you’ll end up with a disaster!

Conclusion: Importance of Accurate Filler Rod Selection Size

Picking the right filler rod size is key when it comes to TIG welding. This helps keep the weld pool strong, makes it easy to work with and increases the lifespan of the final product.

The table below shows the commonly used rod sizes for different base metal thicknesses.

Base Metal ThicknessFiller Rod Size
0.5mm to 3mm1.6mm
3mm to 6mm2.4mm
6mm upwards3.2mm

It’s worth noting that these are only suggestions and the size may differ depending on the situation. Things like joint design, base metal type and welding position all play a role in picking the optimal size.

Furthermore, using a high-quality rod is essential as low-quality rods can cause defects in the end product.

To get the best results, it’s best to ask an expert or read the manufacturer’s guidelines to select the correct filler rod size for each use case. When welding different metals, it’s suggested to choose a larger diameter rod than what the thickness would suggest, as this compensates for the differences in thermal conductivity.

Overall, accurately selecting the right filler rod size is essential for achieving high-quality TIG welds and making sure the finished product is durable.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is TIG welding filler rod selection size?

TIG welding filler rod selection size is the process of choosing the right diameter of filler rod to use for your TIG welding job.

How do I determine the correct size of filler rod to use for my TIG welding job?

The correct size of filler rod to use for your TIG welding job depends on several variables including the thickness of the metal being welded, the type of metal, and the welding position. Generally, a filler rod diameter of 1/16 inch to 1/8 inch is commonly used for TIG welding.

Do I need to have different sizes of filler rods for different welding jobs?

Yes, it is recommended to have different sizes of filler rods on hand for different welding jobs. This ensures that you have the right size of filler rod for the specific welding job you are performing.

Can using the wrong size of filler rod affect the quality of my TIG welding?

Yes, using the wrong size of filler rod can affect the quality of your TIG welding. Using a filler rod that is too thick or too thin can result in weld bead inconsistencies, poor penetration and weld strength.

What is the difference between ER70S-2 and ER70S-6 filler rods?

ER70S-2 and ER70S-6 are two commonly used filler rods for TIG welding. ER70S-2 is used for welding on a metal that has a higher tensile strength than ER70S-6. ER70S-6 is used for welding on a metal that has a lower tensile strength than ER70S-2.

Can I reuse TIG welding filler rods?

No, it is not recommended to reuse TIG welding filler rods. Reusing filler rods can result in impurities in the weld and decrease the strength of your weld.

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Paul Dixon is a certified welder with a wealth of experience in welding and related technologies. He started his career as an apprenticeship in welding, where he learned the ropes and acquired extensive skills in the craft.

Over the years, Paul has continued to sharpen his expertise, earning him top-rated welding certification. He remains one of the most outstanding welders in the industry.

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